Download A to Z of Women in Science and Math (Notable Scientists) by Lisa Yount PDF

By Lisa Yount

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The new objects were dubbed pulsars, and astronomers speculated that they might be neutron stars, a strange kind of star predicted by theory but never observed before. They knew that when a large star runs out of nuclear fuel, it blows up in a colossal explosion called a supernova. 3 miles (10 to 15 km) across, yet heavier than the Sun. Its tremendous gravity would probably smash electrons into protons in the atoms’ nuclei, leaving a soup of neutrons. Only something as small and heavy as a neutron star could spin as fast as the pulsars were doing without being torn apart.

Although still only an associate professor, a title she had been given in 1931, Benedict became acting head of Columbia’s anthropology department after Franz Boas’s retirement in 1936. In 1940, when the belief that some races were superior to Bennett, Isobel Ida others was tearing the world apart, she published a book called Race: Science and Politics to disprove this poisonous myth, which she called racism. “All the arguments are on the side of the Founding Fathers [of the United States], who urged no discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or color,” she wrote.

They then analyzed the viruses’ DNA (genetic matter) to learn the exact nature of the proteins that bound to the materials. They published their research in Nature in 2000. Using similar techniques combined with genetic engineering, Belcher went on to develop viruses that could assemble minute electronic components, molecule by molecule. For example, she created viruses that could grow zinc sulfide wires, just a few nanometers wide, from their shells. Heating the virus mixture burned away the proteins in it, leaving only pure, perfect wires.

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