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By Joseph F. Albright

George Washington Univ. university of drugs, Washington, D.C. Examines the main beneficial properties and capabilities of the immune approach probably to be altered by way of the getting older method. experiences the sluggish breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.

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It is likely that the widespread use of tetracyclines in animal feed is responsible, in part, for the existence in many regions of the world of resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The quinolone antibiotics such as nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin bind to DNA gyrase (type II topoisomerase) in Gram-negative bacteria, and to topoisomerase IV in Gram-positive bacteria thus interfering with DNA replication. Some of the later quinolones have other actions in addition to their effects on topoisomerases and display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity (74).

Tight junctions (zona occludens) that normally prevent penetration of epithelial cell layers also divide the epithelial cells into apical (lumenal) and basolateral surfaces. Some pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella invade host cells from the apical surface whereas others (Yersinia, Shigella) interact with and invade through the basolateral surface. The invasion of host cells by S. typhimurium has attracted the attention of several groups of researchers (55–57), whose findings are quite significant.

Bacterial Type III Secretion Mechanism There are four different mechanisms utilized by bacteria to export synthesized products, especially virulence factors (51). Types I and II lead to secre- 34 Aging, Immunity, and Infection tion of materials directly into the surrounding milieu. In type I secretion, the mechanism employs three proteins that form a channel through the inner and outer bacterial membranes. The type II mechanism has been studied extensively in Vibrio cholerae (52). There are at least 12 proteins that appear to create a pore that bridges the inner and outer membranes and through which bacterial products are secreted.

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