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By John Hospers

This publication presents an in-depth, problem-oriented advent to philosophical research utilizing a very transparent, readable procedure. The Fourth variation doesn't simply replace insurance during the e-book, but in addition restores the introductory chapter—Words and the World—the such a lot individual, commonly acclaimed characteristic of the 1st variations.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis (4th Edition)

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According to Schelling, the very word itself signals this inversion: just as left is right in a mirror image, in reflection what appears as cause to the thinking subject is actually effect. Schelling’s developmental history of the self coming to consciousness seeks to get beyond this inverted world of reflexivity so that philosophy can return to its primary task of providing a comprehensive and integrated understanding of existence. In doing this, the beginning is crucial: initial conditions determine the subsequent development of the entire system.

This last point is critical. Under threat of circularity, the ground of consciousness cannot itself be consciousness, just as the ground of reason cannot itself be located within reason, and the ground of reflexivity cannot itself be accounted for in reflexive terms. 44 Schelling’s strategy of providing a transcendent grounding of thought in the unconscious limits of existence testifies to his conviction that philosophy must primarily deal with the actual world of human experience, a conviction which again sharply contrasts with the modality of possibility which determines Kant’s transcendental world of the “I think” (nowhere in the latter’s table of categories does actuality [Wirklichkeit] appear).

What Kant bequeathed to his successors was far from a formal science of reason due to its lack of a clear principle that would unite his three a priori sources of knowledge, namely, sensible intuition, the concepts of the understanding, and the ideas of reason. Fichte demanded an absolute prius (origin) for these three faculties, and located it in the ‘I’ of human consciousness; a standpoint from which he then attempted to provide “a common derivation of all a priori knowledge from one principle” (II/3, 56).

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